Bread and Feed Grain

The term grain is used to describe, on the one hand, the mostly annual plant species from the sweet grass family that are grown for their edible seeds; on the other hand, grain also refers to seeds that have harvested.

These seeds serve as one of the staple foods for humans or as animal feed; they also serve as a raw material in both the food and beverage industry and in the making of technical products. Cereal grains are made up of a starchy and (to a lesser extent) albuminous endosperm, a fatty seedling, a seed coat that is fused with the pericarp, and the albuminous aleurone layer, located between the endosperm and the husk. The protein contained within certain types of grain (wheat, spelt, rye, barley, triticale) is also known as gluten. For most purposes, mature hulls are separated from the harvested crop through the process of threshing. In some types, the hull – tightly interlocked with the lemma and palea – remains attached to the caryopsis, and in a few primitive grains, even the glumes and fragments of the rachis remain attached. With most types of flour, hulls are traditionally almost completely removed by means of milling, grinding and other methods and then used in the form of bran. This is not the case with wholemeal flour. In order to obtain products suitable for storage, the seed germ must also be removed or be heat-treated. Oil can be extracted from the seed germ. For the sake of human consumption, grains, or rather their endosperm, are mainly milled and baked as bread, cooked to make porridge or processed to make pasta, for example. Grain types that are low in gluten can only be used to bake flat breads. 

Storage

Nowadays, silos are the usual storage method for grain so-called flat bottom silos and tower silos. However, ordinary warehouses (flat storage) are also used as interim storage facilities. It is absolutely crucial that stored grain is properly monitored and managed. Grain breathes: in other words, moisture redistribution takes place within the grain, while to some extent grain also emits water – grain “sweats”. This facilitates the growth of micro-organisms. Moreover, approx. 40 % of a grain store constitutes empty space. The air temperature and level of humidity in these empty spaces determine the “climate” of the grain mass. That is why levels of moisture and temperature must be monitored constantly. The basic principles of storage consist in thoroughly cleaning the grain prior to storage, and ensuring an air exchange takes place every now and then. Grain is ready for storage if it meets the following criteria: moisture content less than 14 %; temperature less than 20 °C (the ideal temperature is between 5 and 8 °C). Dockage less than 1 %.

Quality Requirements

Grain is deemed healthy and of marketable quality when it is free from odours and pests (live or dead, including mites). The grain should also exhibit the correct seed colour typical of its type, in addition to meeting the following quality requirements:

 

Animal Feeds

(Guidelines apply to our “standard delivery terms”, CPT southern Oldenburg)

Feed Wheat
min. 72 kg per hectolitre
max. 2 % dockage
max. 15 % moisture

Feed Rye
min. 68 kg per hectolitre
max. 2 % dockage
max. 15 % moisture
max. 0.10 % ergot
max. 1mg/kg DON

Feed Barley
min. 62 kg per hectolitre
max. 2 % dockage
max. 15 % moisture

Food Sector

(Guidelines apply to our “standard delivery terms”, CPT Hamburg)

German bread wheat with 12 % protein content (so-called Class B wheats)
min. 77 kg per hectolitre
min. 12 % protein
min. 230 seconds falling number
max. 2 % dockage
max. 14.5 % moisture
max. 5 % damaged kernels

German bread wheat with 13 % protein content (so-called Class A wheats)
min. 78 kg per hectolitre
min. 13 % protein
min. 250 seconds falling number
max. 2 % dockage
max. 14.5 % moisture
max. 5 % damaged kernels

EU Milling Rye (CPT mill)
min. 72 kg per hectolitre
min. 120 seconds falling number
max. 2 % dockage
max. 14.5 % moisture
max. 5 % damaged kernels
0.05 % ergot

*As a natural product, grain is subject to various factors that determine its quality, such as climatic conditions during the growing season; the soil condition of the cultivation area; the deployment of fertilisers or pesticides as well as production circumstances and the use of processing aids. The product quality may therefore vary from year to year. 

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